Soul image is the person who represent the reincarnation of a soul in the present reality.
The current existence of a soul image life.
The current existence of a soul image life in the past.
Future of present reality
The current existence of a soul image life in the future.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into what are now two distinct sovereign states: North Korea (officially the “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”) and South Korea (officially the “Republic of Korea”). Korea consists of the Korean Peninsula, Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. It is bordered by China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast. It is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan (East Sea).
Seoul (/soʊl/, like soul; Korean: 서울 [sʌ.ul] ( listen); lit. ‘Capital’), officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. Seoul has a population of 9.7 million people, and forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area with the surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province. Considered to be a global city, Seoul was the world’s 4th largest metropolitan economy in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. In 2017, the cost of living in Seoul was ranked 6th globally.
With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City, the Seoul Capital Area is home to the headquarters of 14 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung, LG, and Hyundai. The metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences. Seoul has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup (with Japan), and the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit.
Seoul was the capital of various Korean states, including Baekje, Joseon, the Korean Empire, Goryeo (as a secondary capital), and presently South Korea. Strategically located along the Han River, Seoul’s history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BC by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The city was later designated the capital of Korea under the Joseon dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city. As with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine, Namhansanseong and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. Seoul received over 10 million international visitors in 2014, making it the world’s 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism.
Han River (Korea)
The Han River or Hangang (Korean pronunciation: [ha(ː)n.ɡaŋ])[e] is a major river in South Korea and the fourth longest river on the Korean peninsula after the Amnok (Yalu), Tuman (Tumen), and Nakdong rivers. The river begins as two smaller rivers in the eastern mountains of the Korean peninsula, which then converge near Seoul, the capital of the country.
Namsan Tower - N Seoul Tower
The N Seoul Tower (Korean: N서울타워), officially the YTN Seoul Tower and commonly known as the Namsan Tower or Seoul Tower, is a communication and observation tower located on Namsan Mountain in central Seoul, South Korea. At 236 metres (774 ft), it marks the second highest point in Seoul.
Built in 1971, the N Seoul Tower is South Korea’s first general radio wave tower, providing TV and radio broadcasting in Seoul. Currently, the tower broadcasts signals for Korean media outlets, such as KBS, MBC and SBS.
Cheonggyecheon (Hangul: 청계천, Korean pronunciation: [t͡ʃʰʌŋ.gje.t͡ʃʰʌn]) is a 10.9-kilometre-long (6.8 mi), modern public recreation space in downtown Seoul, South Korea. The massive urban renewal project is on the site of a stream that flowed before the rapid post-war economic development caused it to be covered by transportation infrastructure. The $900 million project initially attracted much public criticism but, since opening in 2005, has become popular among residents and tourists.
Sewoon Rooftop - Sewoon Sangga (Sewoon Plaza)
Not to be missed is Sewoon Sangga’s newly renovated public rooftop. The 25,058-square-foot space has lounging areas perfect for slowing down, a blooming urban garden, and, best of all, dramatic views of downtown Seoul you won’t find anywhere else.
Depending on where you stand, you can see Jongmyo Shrine, Bugaksan Mountain, the industrial Euljiro neighborhood (sadly on the verge of being demolished), Namsan Seoul Tower, Gwangjang Market (arguably the best food market in Seoul), Cheonggyecheon, and more.
Myeongdong (Korean: 명동; Hanja: 明洞; lit. ‘bright cave’ or ‘bright tunnel’) is a dong in Jung-gu, Seoul, South Korea between Chungmu-ro, Eulji-ro, and Namdaemun-ro. It covers 0.99km² with a population of 3,409 and is mostly a commercial area, being one of Seoul’s main shopping, parade route and tourism districts. In 2011, 2012 and 2013, Myeong-dong was listed as the ninth most expensive shopping street in the world. The area is known for its two historically significant sites, namely the Myeongdong Cathedral and the Myeongdong Nanta Theatre.
Jogyesa (Jogye Temple) is the chief temple of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism. The building dates back to the late 14th century and became the order’s chief temple in 1936. It thus plays a leading role in the current state of Seon Buddhism in South Korea. The temple was first established in 1395, at the dawn of the Joseon Dynasty; the modern temple was founded in 1910 and initially called “Gakhwangsa”. The name was changed to “Taegosa” during the period of Japanese rule, and then to the present name in 1954.
Jogyesa is located in Gyeonji-dong, Jongno-gu, in downtown Seoul. Natural monument No. 9, an ancient white pine tree, is located within the temple grounds. Jogyesa Temple is located in one of the most popular cultural streets in Seoul, Insa-dong, near the Gyeongbokgung Palace.
Joseon Korean Dynastic Kingdom
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, Korean: 대조선국; 大朝鮮國, lit. ‘Great Chosun Country’) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. Joseon was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897. It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul. The kingdom’s northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korea and its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty.
Goryeo (고려; 高麗; Koryŏ; [ko.ɾjʌ]) was a Korean kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392. Goryeo achieved what has been called a “true national unification” by Korean historians as it not only unified the Later Three Kingdoms but also incorporated much of the ruling class of the northern kingdom of Balhae, who had origins in Goguryeo of the earlier Three Kingdoms of Korea. The name “Korea” is derived from the name of Goryeo, also spelled Koryŏ, which was first used in the early 5th century by Goguryeo.
The Goryeo period was the “golden age of Buddhism” in Korea, and as the national religion, Buddhism achieved its highest level of influence in Korean history, with 70 temples in the capital alone in the 11th century.
A hanbok (in South Korean) or Chosŏn-ot (in North Korean) is a traditional Korean dress for semi-formal or formal attire during traditional occasions such as festivals, celebrations, and ceremonies. It is characterized by vibrant colours and simple lines without pockets. Although the term literally means “Korean clothing”, today Hanbok usually refers specifically to clothing worn during the Joseon dynasty period.
Aether, the fifth element, is unique. The ancient Greek philosophers believed that the gods and heavens were composed of this Aether.”
“The soul exists on the spiritual plane and consists of Aether. As does every higher dimensional being, such as spirit guides.
This Aether field can interact with the physical plane, but the interaction does not work both ways. We can only have an effect on things within the physical plane.
This is why we listen to our spiritual beings rather than them listening to us – they exist to impart wisdom, not receive.
But we can draw on the power of the Aether, which is what we are doing when we utilise meditation alongside chanting…
Aum mani padme hum
This mantra is seen as a condensed form of all the Buddhist teachings.
The first word Aum/Om is a sacred syllable in various Indian religions. The word Mani means “jewel” or “bead”, Padme is the “lotus flower” (the Eastern sacred flower), and Hum represents the spirit of enlightenment.
In Tibetan Buddhism, this is the most ubiquitous mantra and the most popular form of religious practice, performed by laypersons and monastics alike.
The third eye (also called the mind’s eye or inner eye) is a mystical and esoteric concept of a speculative invisible eye, usually depicted as located on the forehead, which provides perception beyond ordinary sight.
In Dharmic spiritual traditions(Hinduism) from Nepal and India, the third eye refers to the ajna (or brow) chakra. The third eye refers to the gate that leads to the inner realms and spaces of higher consciousness. In spirituality, the third eye often symbolizes a state of enlightenment or the evocation of mental images having deeply personal spiritual or psychological significance. The third eye is often associated with religious visions, clairvoyance, the ability to observe chakras and auras, precognition, and out-of-body experiences. People who are said to have the capacity to utilize their third eyes are sometimes known as seers. In Hinduism and Buddhism, the third eye is said to be located around the middle of the forehead, slightly above the junction of the eyebrows, representing the enlightenment one achieves through meditation. Hindus also place a “tilaka” between the eyebrows as a representation of the third eye, which is also seen on expressions of Shiva. Buddhists regard the third eye as the “eye of consciousness”, representing the vantage point from which enlightenment beyond one’s physical sight is achieved.
Siddhis (Sanskrit: सिद्धि siddhi; fulfillment, accomplishment) are material, paranormal, supernatural, or otherwise magical powers, abilities, and attainments that are the products of yogic advancement through sādhanās such as meditation and yoga. The term ṛddhi (Pali: iddhi, “psychic powers”) is often used interchangeably in Buddhism.
A mantra (Sanskrit: मन्त्र, romanized: mantra, English pronunciation /ˈmæntrə, ˈmɑːn-, ˈmʌn-/) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have religious, magical or spiritual powers in Hinduism. Some mantras have a syntactic structure and literal meaning, while others do not.
The earliest mantras were composed in Vedic Sanskrit in India, and are at least 3500 years old. Mantras now exist in various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. In Japanese Shingon tradition, the word Shingon means mantra. Similar hymns, antiphons, chants, compositions, and concepts are found in Zoroastrianism, Taoism, Christianity, and elsewhere.
The use, structure, function, importance, and types of mantras vary according to the school and philosophy of Hinduism and Buddhism. Mantras serve a central role in tantra. In this school, mantras are considered to be a sacred formula and a deeply personal ritual, effective only after initiation. In other schools of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism or Sikhism, initiation is not a requirement.
Mantras come in many forms, including ṛc (verses from the Rigveda for example) and sāman (musical chants from the Sāmaveda for example). They are typically melodic, mathematically structured meters, believed to be resonant with numinous qualities. At its simplest, the word ॐ (Aum, Om) serves as a mantra, it is believed to be the first sound which was originated on earth. Aum sound when produced creates a reverberation in the body which helps the body and mind to be calm. In more sophisticated forms, mantras are melodic phrases with spiritual interpretations such as a human longing for truth, reality, light, immortality, peace, love, knowledge, and action. Some mantras without literal meaning are musically uplifting and spiritually meaningful.
Enlightenment is the “full comprehension of a situation”. The term is commonly used to denote the Age of Enlightenment but is also used in Western cultures in a religious context. It translates several Buddhist terms and concepts, most notably bodhi, kensho and satori. Related terms from Asian religions are moksha (liberation) in Hinduism, Kevala Jnana in Jainism, and ushta in Zoroastrianism.
In Christianity, the word “enlightenment” is rarely used, except to refer to the Age of Enlightenment and its influence on Christianity. Roughly equivalent terms in Christianity may be the illumination, kenosis, metanoia, revelation, salvation and conversion.
Perennialists and Universalists view enlightenment and mysticism as equivalent terms for religious or spiritual insight.
Enlightenment in Buddhism
The English term enlightenment is the western translation of the abstract noun bodhi, (/ˈboʊdi/; Sanskrit: बोधि; Pali: bodhi), the knowledge or wisdom, or awakened intellect, of a Buddha. The verbal root budh- means “to awaken,” and its literal meaning is closer to “awakening.” Although the term buddhi is also used in other Indian philosophies and traditions, its most common usage is in the context of Buddhism. The term “enlightenment” was popularised in the Western world through the 19th century translations of Max Müller. It has the western connotation of general insight into transcendental truth or reality.
The term is also being used to translate several other Buddhist terms and concepts, which are used to denote (initial) insight (prajna (Sanskrit), wu (Chinese), kensho and satori (Japanese)); knowledge (vidhya); the “blowing out” (Nirvana) of disturbing emotions and desires and the subsequent freedom or release (vimukti); and the attainment of supreme Buddhahood (samyak sam bodhi), as exemplified by Gautama Buddha.
What exactly constituted the Buddha’s awakening is unknown. It may probably have involved the knowledge that liberation was attained by the combination of mindfulness and dhyāna, applied to the understanding of the arising and ceasing of craving. The relation between dhyana and insight is a core problem in the study of Buddhism, and is one of the fundamentals of Buddhist practice.
In the western world the concept of (spiritual) enlightenment has taken on a romantic meaning. It has become synonymous with self-realization and the true self and false self, being regarded as a substantial essence being covered over by social conditioning.
Raguel (also Raguil, Rasuil, Rufael, Raquel, Rakul, Reuel, and Akrasiel) is an angel mainly of the Judaic traditions. He is considered the Angel of Justice. His name means “Friend of God”.
Raguel is almost always referred to as the archangel of justice, fairness, harmony, vengeance and redemption. He is also sometimes known as the archangel of speech. In the Book of Enoch, cap. XXIII, Raguel is one of the seven angels whose role is to watch. His number is 6, and his function is to take vengeance on the world of the luminaries who have transgressed God’s laws.
Raguel’s duties have remained the same across Jewish and Christian traditions. Much like a sheriff or constable, Raguel’s purpose has always been to keep fallen angels and demons in check, delivering heinous judgment upon any that over-step their boundaries. He has been known to destroy wicked spirits, and cast fallen angels into Hell (called Gehenna in the Hebrew Old Testament and called Tartarus in the Greek New Testament).
Zazen - Shikantaza
Zazen (literally “seated meditation”; Japanese: 座禅; simplified Chinese: 坐禅; traditional Chinese: 坐禪; pinyin: zuò chán; Wade–Giles: tso4-ch’an2, pronounced [tswô ʈʂʰǎn]) is a meditative discipline that is typically the primary practice of the Zen Buddhist tradition. The meaning and method of zazen varies from school to school, but in general it can be regarded as a means of insight into the nature of existence. In the Japanese Rinzai school, zazen is usually associated with the study of koans. The Sōtō School of Japan, on the other hand, only rarely incorporates koans into zazen, preferring an approach where the mind has no object at all, known as shikantaza.
Shikantaza is a form of meditation, in which the practitioner does not use any specific object of meditation; rather, practitioners remain as much as possible in the present moment, aware of and observing what passes through their minds and around them. Dogen says, in his Shobogenzo, “Sitting fixedly, think of not thinking. How do you think of not thinking? Nonthinking. This is the art of zazen.“
Hesychasm (/ˈhɛsɪkæzəm, ˈhɛzɪ-/) is a mystical tradition of contemplative prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Based on Jesus’s injunction in the Gospel of Matthew that “whenever you pray, go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you”, hesychasm in tradition has been the process of retiring inward by ceasing to register the senses, in order to achieve an experiential knowledge of God (see Theoria).
Theosis is obtained by engaging in contemplative prayer resulting from the cultivation of watchfulness (Gk: nepsis). According to the standard ascetic formulation of this process, there are three stages:
- Katharsis or purification,
- Theoria or illumination, and
- Theosis or deification (also referred to as union with God)…
The primary task of the hesychast is to engage in mental ascesis. The hesychast is to bring his mind (Gr. nous) into his heart so as to practise both the Jesus Prayer and sobriety with his mind in his heart. In solitude and retirement, the hesychast repeats the Jesus Prayer, “Lord Jesus Christ, son of God, have mercy on me, the sinner.” The hesychast prays the Jesus Prayer ‘with the heart’—with meaning, with intent, “for real”…
The descent of the mind into the heart is taken quite literally by the practitioners of hesychasm and is not at all considered to be a metaphorical expression. Some of the psychophysical techniques described in the texts are to assist the descent of the mind into the heart at those times that only with difficulty it descends on its own…
The guard of the mind is the practical goal of the hesychast. It is the condition in which he remains as a matter of course throughout his day, every day until he dies.
There is a very great emphasis on humility in the practice of the Jesus Prayer, great cautions being given in the texts about the disaster that will befall the would-be hesychast if he proceeds in pride, arrogance or conceit. It is also assumed in the hesychast texts that the hesychast is a member of the Orthodox Church in good standing.
The hesychast usually experiences the contemplation of God as light, the “uncreated light” of the theology of St Gregory Palamas. The hesychast, when he has by the mercy of God been granted such an experience, does not remain in that experience for a very long time (there are exceptions—see for example the Life of St Savas the Fool for Christ (14th century), written by St Philotheos Kokkinos (14th century)), but he returns “to earth” and continues to practise the guard of the mind.
The uncreated light that the hesychast experiences is identified with the Holy Spirit. Experiences of the uncreated light are allied to the ‘acquisition of the Holy Spirit’.
Sufism, mystical Islamic belief and practice in which Muslims seek to find the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God. It consists of a variety of mystical paths that are designed to ascertain the nature of humanity and of God and to facilitate the experience of the presence of divine love and wisdom in the world.
One of the means used on the path is the ritual prayer, or dhikr (“remembrance”), derived from the Qurʾānic injunction “And remember God often” (sura [chapter] 62, verse 10). It consists of a repetition of either one or all of the most beautiful names of God, of the name Allah, or of a certain religious formula, such as shahādah (the profession of faith): “There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.” The rosary with 99 or 33 beads was in use as early as the 8th century for counting the thousands of repetitions. One’s whole being should eventually be transformed into remembrance of God…
The greatest mystical poet in the Persian language, Jalāl al-Dīn al-Rūmī (1207–73), was moved by mystical love to compose his lyrical poetry that he attributed to his mystical beloved, Shams al-Dīn of Tabriz, as a symbol of their union. Rūmī’s didactic poem Mas̄navī-yi Maʿnavī in about 26,000 couplets—a work that is for the Persian-reading mystics second in importance only to the Qurʾān—is an encyclopaedia of mystical thought in which everyone can find his own religious ideas. Rūmī inspired the organization of the whirling dervishes—who sought ecstasy through an elaborate dancing ritual, accompanied by superb music.
Bhakti yoga, also called Bhakti marga (literally the path of Bhakti), is a spiritual path or spiritual practice within Hinduism focused on loving devotion towards any personal deity. It is one of several paths in Hinduism which lead to Moksha, the other paths being Jnana yoga, Karma yoga, and Kriya yoga.
The tradition has ancient roots. Bhakti is mentioned in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad where it simply means participation, devotion and love for any endeavour. Bhakti yoga as one of three spiritual paths for salvation is discussed in depth by the Bhagavad Gita.
The personal god varies with the devotee. It may include a god or goddess such as Ganesha, Krishna, Radha, Rama, Sita, Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Parvati, Durga, and Surya among others.
Tibetan Buddhism (also Indo-Tibetan Buddhism and Sino-Indian Buddhism) is the form of Buddhism practiced in Tibet, where it is the dominant religion. It also has adherents in the regions surrounding the Himalayas (such as Bhutan, Ladakh, and Sikkim), in much of Central Asia, in the Southern Siberian regions such as Tuva, and in Mongolia.
Tibetan Buddhism evolved as a form of Mahāyāna Buddhism stemming from the latest stages of Indian Buddhism (which also included many Vajrayāna elements). It thus preserves many Indian Buddhist tantric practices of the post-Gupta Early Medieval period (500 to 1200 CE), along with numerous native Tibetan developments. In the pre-modern era, Tibetan Buddhism spread outside of Tibet primarily due to the influence of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), founded by Kublai Khan, which had ruled China, Mongolia and parts of Siberia. In the Modern era, Tibetan Buddhism has spread outside of Asia due to the efforts of the Tibetan diaspora (1959 onwards).
Apart from classical Mahāyāna Buddhist practices like the six perfections, Tibetan Buddhism also includes tantric practices, such as deity yoga and the Six Dharmas of Naropa as well as methods which are seen as transcending tantra, like Dzogchen. Its main goal is Buddhahood. The main language of scriptural study in this tradition is classical Tibetan.
Tibetan Buddhism has four major schools, namely Nyingma (c. 8th century), Kagyu (11th century), Sakya (1073), and Gelug (1409). The Jonang is a smaller school that exists, and the Rimé movement (19th century), meaning “no sides”, is a more recent non-sectarian movement which attempts to preserve and understand all the different traditions. The predominant spiritual tradition in Tibet before the introduction of Buddhism was Bon, which has been strongly influenced by Tibetan Buddhism (particularly the Nyingma school).
The Matrix is a 1999 American science fiction action film written and directed by the Wachowskis, and produced by Joel Silver. It stars Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving, and Joe Pantoliano and is the first instalment in the Matrix franchise. It depicts a dystopian future in which humanity is unknowingly trapped inside a simulated reality, the Matrix, created by intelligent machines to distract humans while using their bodies as an energy source. When computer programmer Thomas Anderson, under the hacker alias “Neo”, uncovers the truth, he “is drawn into a rebellion against the machines” along with other people who have been freed from the Matrix.
Jon Snow (character)
Jon Snow is a fictional character in the strong>A Song of Ice and Fire series of fantasy novels by American author George R. R. Martin, and its television adaptation Game of Thrones, in which he is portrayed by English actor Kit Harington. In the novels, he is a prominent point of view character. He is one of the most popular characters in the series, and The New York Times cites him as one of the author’s finest creations.
Multiverse = Alternate realities
The multiverse is a hypothetical group of multiple universes. Together, these universes comprise everything that exists: the entirety of space, time, matter, energy, information, and the physical laws and constants that describe them. The different universes within the multiverse are called “parallel universes”, “other universes”, “alternate universes”, or “many worlds”.
Parallel universes = Alternate realities
From science fiction to science fact, there is a concept that suggests that there could be other universes besides our own, where all the choices you made in this life played out in alternate realities. The concept is known as a “parallel universe,” and is a facet of the astronomical theory of the multiverse.
The many-worlds interpretation (MWI) is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts that the universal wavefunction is objectively real, and that there is no wavefunction collapse. This implies that all possible outcomes of quantum measurements are physically realized in some “world” or universe. In contrast to some other interpretations, such as the Copenhagen interpretation, the evolution of reality as a whole in MWI is rigidly deterministic. Many-worlds is also called the relative state formulation or the Everett interpretation, after physicist Hugh Everett, who first proposed it in 1957. Bryce DeWitt popularized the formulation and named it many-worlds in the 1960s and 1970s.
The many-worlds interpretation implies that there are very many universes, perhaps infinitely many. It is one of many multiverse hypotheses in physics and philosophy. MWI views time as a many-branched tree, wherein every possible quantum outcome is realised. This is intended to resolve some paradoxes of quantum theory, such as the EPR paradox and Schrödinger’s cat, since every possible outcome of a quantum event exists in its own universe.
Quantum experiment suggests there really are ‘alternative facts’
There are no objective facts in the world. This isn’t a statement about fake news. Rather, it is the implication of an experiment that suggests the nature of reality depends on who is looking.
The work is rooted in thought experiments about the nature of quantum mechanics, but this is the first time one has been done in the lab, with potentially profound implications
The quantum realm (or quantum parameter) in physics is the scale at which quantum mechanical effects become important when studied as an isolated system. Typically, this means distances of 100 nanometers (10−9 meters) or less, or at very low temperatures (extremely close to absolute zero). More precisely, it is where the action or angular momentum is quantized – described as the uncertainty principle and spin, respectively.
While originating on the nanometer scale, such effects can operate on a macro level, generating some paradoxes like in the Schrödinger’s cat thought experiment. Two classical examples are quantum tunneling and the double-slit experiment. Most fundamental processes in molecular electronics, organic electronics, and organic semiconductors also originate in the quantum realm.
The quantum realm can also sometimes involve actions at long distances. A well-known example is David Bohm’s (1951) version of the famous thought experiment that Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, and Nathan Rosen proposed in 1935, the EPR paradox. Pairs of particles are emitted from a source in the so-called spin singlet state and rush in opposite directions. When the particles are widely separated from each other, they each encounter a measuring apparatus that can be set to measure their spin components along with various directions. Although the measurement events are distant from each other, so that no slower-than-light or light signal can travel between them in time, outcomes are nonetheless entangled.
A brief history of quantum alternatives
“Copenhagen” QM says there’s no reality ’til it’s measured, so many seek an alternative…
Quantum mechanics, along with the Copenhagen Interpretation, has consequences that are unintuitive, bizarre, and metaphysically unacceptable. Its primacy of probability and banishment of deterministic causality caused Einstein to complain that God “does not play dice with the Universe.” Why, then, do physicists embrace it? Why can’t we say that there may be deterministic “hidden variables” that give rise to the probabilities of the quantum world?
The strongest and most direct reason is Bell’s Theorem. This theorem, proved by J.S. Bell in 1964, shows that if there exists a layer of hidden variables that we can’t measure, then the outcomes of certain experiments must come out a certain way. By now, there is abundant evidence, from extremely accurate experiments, that measurements do not come out that way. Logic demands that there does not exist an unknown, deterministic layer in the microworld.